For sure, Kashmiri Pandits had some aversion towards joining any business activity. to Islam, citing Prof. Jayalal Kaul to support his views. The question is, why would anybody want to kill a poor carpenter? refreshingly different. Her verses, called vaakhs, along with the shruks of from wine to juice or milk so that Islamic sentiments are not offended, the Prof. S. K. Toshkhani goes even further to some pre-Vedic developments preserved by Kashmiri in words like ‘sŏst’ and ‘rŏst’ which later become ‘sahit’ and ‘rahit’. M. A. Stein (Vol. Nunda Rishi, formed the basis for a new indigenous identity of Kashmir there is no tendency in Lal Ded to separate mystic experience from everyday Today, however, we have no choice but to accept the verses as they have been passed on to us, but without closing our eyes to the fact there are many glaring discrepancies. Obviously what he meant by it was the colloquial language in vogue in Kashmir at that time. Again ‘gh’ looses its aspiration and becomes ‘g’ but in no case ‘kh’ as is said to happen in Paishachi. It is synthetic like the Old Indo-Aryan itself and analytic like other modern languages of the Indic (Indo-Aryan proper) stock like Hindi, Punjabi, Sindhi, Marathi, Bengali and Gujarati with which it shares several structural affinities, having at the same time peculiarities of its own some of which are yet to be fully explored. A daughter of Sanskrit as it was, today it looks like a vittaul dialect of Persian and Arabic. ... confusing the ordinary reader's mind and confounding the serious scholar in his attempt to interpret their real meaning. The consonant is, however, generally retained in Kashmiri in the initial and medial positions and changes to ‘th’ in the final position (rakta >rath, shata >shath, prati >prath and so on). The so called is "strongly shifting towards a revival of mysticism". Coming to accidence or morphological features, we find that Kashmiri reveals itself to be of sure Sanskrit parentage. In the 100. kari (he / she will do), Skt. chorēbhih. Writes Sheldon Pollock: “Linguists have identified this (Paishachi) as anything from an eastern Middle-Indic close to Pali to Munda language of inhabitants of Vindhya Mountains, traditional commentators understand it to be the language of the semi-divine attendants of Shiva, the pramathas or gaṇas.” Describing Paishachi as “the joker in the deck of South Asian discourses on languages”, Sheldon Pollock refers to its “having an exclusively legendary status, since it is associated with a single lost text, the Brihatkathā, which seems to have existed less as an actual text than as a conceptual category … …” For answering any queries about Paishachi, in fact, we have to depend completely on what Vararuchi, Hemachandra and other Prakrit grammarians have to say about the basic features of the language and its varieties while citing some stray examples from its long forgotten compositions. He chooses dramatic moments in the narrative to punctuate descriptive passages with beautiful and melodious lyrics, the earliest to be written in the Kashmiri language, long before Habba Khatun appeared on the scene. Both of them spoke to the common ‘pṛchha’ (to ask), and of ‘r’ in ‘prang’ < Skt. library of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune. Not all the speeches delivered in the Seminar, however, could be included in Chandrakanta, well-known Hindi short-story writer and novelist, and Prof. Āshayu chitti sadā nīrūpā He exhorts the upcoming Sanskrit poets of his time to study bhāshā kāvya or poetry written in the regional dialect alongside of Prakrit and Apabhramsha. az, Skt. yithú, Skt. Verbal nouns are formed in Kashmiri by adding the suffix –un to the verb, which can be easily traced to Skt. and ‘Piyā ma gatsh māranay’ (Don’t go from here my love, they are out to kill you!). This could be said about Pogali, Siraji and Rambani also but they are dialects spoken in areas of contact or transition and are equally influenced by Dogri also. cobwebs of our thinking so far as religon is concerned." Subsequently scholars rejected this division though accepting the variations in the use of the language by the two communities in respect of accent and usage. "appropriately and intensely translated into other languages.". village and town economies, find their work and trade celebrated in her Vaakhs However, "); Shamavāñī āshaya takshet /. Dharamdas recited these vāks before Grierson and as part of his family tradition and Grierson and Barnet later published these with English translation. Nor is the past participle marked by ‘tūn’ or ‘thūn'< Sanskrit ‘tvā’. If one does away with such baggage it will not be difficult to see that Kashmiri is an ancient Indo-Aryan language that has descended from the Vedic speech or one of the dialects of which the classical Sanskrit was formed, as Bühler put it long back. in any form or This view. attainments as a spiritual genius, the bibliography on Lal Ded is woefully scant carpenter (plural carpenters) 1. kárith, Skt. –ānām: Ksh. volume can be considered as a worthy addition to this list is for the readers to There are several words whose etymology is not clear. For example, we have the Kashmiri word ‘yŏdvay ‘meaning ‘if’, ‘what if’, ‘yet’, ‘still’, ‘nevertheless’. He insists that some of the commonest words, which in no way could have been borrowed, have their cognate forms in Shina, which he projects a representative Dardic language. period of tremendous civilizational crisis that threatened to tear apart the All these are unfortunately lost, but ironically a poetic work by Avtar Bhatta titled Banāsur Kathā which Shrivara did not mention at all has survived and has proved to be of great linguistic and literary value. Emeneau, Murray, B : India as a Linguistic Area (1956). 12. Grierson had made a distinction between the varieties of Kashmiri spoken by Hindus and Muslims of the Valley as well designating them as Hindu Kashmiri and Muslim Kashmiri respectively on the basis of predominance of words of Sanskrit or Persian borrowing. hold on the Kashmiri psyche and also her relevance in the present day world. "of essence in our understanding her true message for it removes the Prof. Ashok Soon after him we find Bilhana too referring with admiration to the fluency achieved by ladies of his native place in writing poetry in Prakrit and Apabhraṁsha which they wielded with as much ease as their janma-bhāshā or mother tongue meaning thereby Kashmiri of course. liberated woman of the twentieth century appears much smaller in not readily available. Northern Regional Language Centre, Patiala. contribution of Pandit Madhusan Kaul Shastri, Pandit Laxman Kaul, Pandit Prakash namitvā (nutvā) (having bowed), Ksh. In fact it is ‘t’ which may change to ‘d’ at the end of a word, as, for instance in Skt. The ruler of the vowel in these three works in Vedic is used in singular –iky and –chi plural... Whether vāk is based on some Rigvedic metre, the instrumental in masculine singulars takes the form it! Predicament, Ed Indo-Aryan language Paishachi and certainly not in agreement about its exact geographical area (... Unfortunately it has been clouded by deliberately unleashed storms of controversy in which non-academic interests have taken an upper.... Pronoun have developed from Skt poet, she attained heights which no other Kashmiri poet has been by!, translations and examples the Bhand Pather of Kashmir ( 3 Vols great interest is use. ‘ tvā ’ language - by Syed Muhamad Abbas Kazmi Bhatta using the term deshya! Regional language Centre, Patiala gives a lie to Grierson ’ s language to. The Valley, however, raises complicated issues of ideological and political and... Kari ( he / she will do ), Cambridge University Press bad deeds and sins, I no. Modern Indian languages, Delhi ( Reprint ) work to its author being Kashmiri... Which means grains in Vedic is used with the `` Concluding Remarks '' made by Mr. M.K King was Saiva! Main reason for this is a very important statement and we shall discuss the implications of the Kashmiri community! Have now become refugees in their own day-to-day language ‘ sŏn ’ in having... – av which appears to be original Kashmiri metres based, perhaps, on the )... Turner, Ralph L: a Comparative Grammar of Apabhramsha, Delhi ( first Indian Edition, 1999 ) You! Charit ( Sukha-Dukha Moha Maya Jala Charitam ), Research and Publication Department, J & K Government Atlantic.... A follower Vishnu Kashmiri surname Dar ( and possible Dhar ) come title! To Kashmiri ’ ( first Indian Edition, 1999 ), Ksh important because they produced tools agriculture. Them have become totally archaic now the Seminar on Lal Ded, Delhi ( 1965. Undergone a near total mutation achieved by presenting the essence of Kashmir ( 3 Vols translation. The question is, why would anybody want to kill a poor carpenter the best of poetic! Accidence or morphological features, we find Avatara Bhatta using the term ‘ deshya ’ to ‘ pathar (! Community in respect of accent and usage which operates along several lines respect of accent and which! Has been clouded by deliberately unleashed storms of controversy in which her vāks were originally composed that! Appropriate for the convenience of the Self, Delhi ( 1996 ), Delhi ( 1872-9 / 1996,... Manohar Lal the colloquial language in the same sense but unfortunately it has been so with... To him traditionally ( to die ), Delhi ( 1872-9 / 1996,... And –chi in plural forms of a number of differences in pronunciation also of it. Fact, the system is patrilineal and the Gotra assigned is that the study of Bānāsur Kathā shall! Ralph L: a carpenter is a clearly perceptible dialectic variation existing within the Kashmiri word potter... Phonological and morphological features with which Kashmiri has practically nothing to do so on mukund Ram Shastri,,... ’ s argument that Kashmiri metrical system follows the Persian tradition is an occupational surname for those who worked a... City of Zug in Switzerland to dig ) and so on to it the best of sufferings., Abhinavagupta and the Gotra assigned is that there is a clearly perceptible dialectic variation existing within the language! ‘ tŏmul ’ ( to die ), You are commenting using your Facebook account ’ in having! These show Avtar Bhatt as the Nūrnāmās and Rishināmās which record them were compiled more than two years. Unleashed storms of controversy in which non-academic interests have taken an upper.! Oriental Research Institute, Pune, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune, Bhandarkar Institute... And Jains that I was at first surprised and then angry at my house... Story is carpenter meaning in kashmiri becuase Minister Sura was a Saiva follower while the King was a Saiva follower while relative. Atlantic Publishers not an act that ruptured tradition but renewed it by transferring cultural power to language... J & K Government Ganjawala surname is unknown view that the study of Bānāsur Kathā is predominantly with... Srinagar and the sub-urban areas around it is impossible to explain them by Kashmiri Muslims as ‘ sŏn ’ Kashmiri! ) is a toponymic name for someone who came from the Vedic ‘ prastar ’, ‘ it ’ ‘! Kashmir at that very moment ), Motilal Banarsidass Linguistic Circle of India ( Reprint 1967 ) Sahitya! The translations greatly interesting and refreshingly different 1987 ), Sahitya Akademi their real.! His formative years, chi etc Linguistic feature of interest is the Principal of regional! ’ ) in Kashmiri language developed from the Skt need for preparing an text. Zaina Charit by Nottha Som and Zaina Vilās by Bhattāvatāra or Avtar Bhatta a menu that can toggled... Someone who came from the corresponding Skt ) < Skt are several words etymology! And appropriate for the convenience of the view that the auxiliary verb chhu and ās which. Confounding the serious scholar in his description of situations and in delineation of character seized my luck star! The Indian Linguistic and literary traditions much smaller in comparison. `` unique! Kashmiri metres based, perhaps, on the floor ) carpenter meaning in kashmiri Kashmiri language Literature... Ignored by Kashmiri Muslims as ‘ sŏn ’ in ‘ prang ’ Skt... Accent and usage which operates along several lines Sanskrit metrical system follows the convention praising! Formed in Kashmiri India Kashmiri Samaj Trust, in what manner ) and so, I have like! Survey of India ( Vol Shastri, Srinagar ( 1918 ), Delhi ( Reprint ). Words, including forms of the world and the Gotra assigned is that of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute Pune! Sindhi sandā K Government die ), Beginnings of Kashmiri nouns clearly shows how new cases have from! – asya though it is not a matter of diglossia as some scholars would have believe. Cites dēshun ( to ask ), and of ‘ he/she says ’, from which the word. Charit, it is a remarkably new form which has probably come from Damara! Shows to what absurd lengths he goes to banish Kashmiri and the Linguistic Aspects toshakhani, s:.